244 - february 2002

Holy Cross - Liverpool
Vincent DennyO.M.I.

Holy Cross - Liverpool
Vincent DennyO.M.I.

This issue of OMI Documentationpresents a brief history of the early days of Holy Cross parishas wellas an account of Bishop de Mazenod’s first visit to the Provincein 1850. His visit to Holy Cross was the highlight of this trip. The twoaccounts presented here are from Fr. Vincent Denny’s history of theAnglo-Irish Province (1841-1921) published under the title ReachingOut. In the words of Fr. Denny“It was in the slums of Liverpoolthat the Founder saw the fulfillment of the Oblate role which was to preachthe Gospel to the poor.”

Editor’s note:Holy Cross parish in Liverpool ended its 152 year history on September162001. It was one of the oldest Oblate parishes outside of France datingback to the Founder’s time. It was also one of the earliest foundationsof the Anglo-Irish Oblates to survive until recent times. Reporting thisevent in its December issuespace did not permit OMI Information (#407)to expand upon the ingenuity and industriousness of the founding Fathers.Their pastoral concern was not limited to the spiritual needs of whatwas literally a flood of Irish immigrants. They turned their attentionalso to the various human needs. They helped these sickpoor and desperatepeople fleeing the “Famine” to rediscover a sense of human dignityand hope. They thus laid the foundations of a ministry to immigrants thatcontinues to this day and is still one of the hallmarks of the Anglo-IrishProvince.

The Beginnings...

Soon after making his debutin the urban mission of ManchesterFr. John Noble was invited to preacha mission in Liverpool. It was a tremendous success and Bishop Brownthe newly appointed Bishop of Liverpoolwas so impressed with what heheard of the Oblate venture in Manchester and the prowess of Fr. Nobleas a preacher that he entrusted the mission of Holy Cross to the OblateMissionary Society. This area of Liverpoolcentered on the docklandswas a vast slum area containing hundreds of thousands of peoplemainlyIrishwho had been coming there in increasing numbers since the mid-1840sfleeing from the Famine in Ireland. When Providence decreed that the Oblatesshould undertake the care of the poverty-stricken Irish emigrants in Liverpoolin 1850it appeared to them that their prime objective in coming to Englandwas being put into abeyance. But it was not soas it is generally admittedthat the Catholic revival there was helped more by the Irish invasionthan by any other series of factors.

TheIrish Famine and emigration

It is estimated that bythe mid-1840s the population of Ireland had fallen from eight to belowsix millionsdue to starvationplague and wholesale emigration. It wasfrom this appalling catastrophe that God chose the means to extend hisKingdom in Great Britain and subsequently throughout the entire English-speakingworld. Bishop de Mazenod was surprisingly well acquainted with the awfulplight which had overtaken the people in Ireland at that time and he claimedto be the only French Bishop to issue an appeal for the alleviation ofthe sufferings of the people of Ireland. He addressed two circular lettersto his people in Marseilles24 February and 12 June1847in which heappealed to them to pray for the Irish Famine victims and to give generouslytowards the relief of their misery.(1) His eloquent pleas didnot fall on deaf earsbecause in spite of incessant demands and the smallnumber of parishes in his diocesehis faithful Catholics donated 20000francs (£800) in response. He pointed out in a letter to ArchbishopMcHale of Tuam that when flooding in France had caused widespread devastationhis appeal on that occasion had earned only 8000 francs.

900immigrants a day

The main thrust of immigrantsto Great Britain came through LiverpoolCardiff and Glasgow. Liverpoolwas the port easiest of access to these poor wayfarers and here they cameeither to settle or to use as a transit-station for countries furtherafield. It has been noted that in January 1847nine hundred emigrantsarrived in Liverpool daily and more than forty thousand came the followingmonth. By the end of the yearover three hundred thousand impoverishedand fever-ridden victims had sought sanctuary in that city from the destitutionthat had overtaken them in their own country. The majority of those whoremained settled in that area which was later to become the parish ofHoly Cross. They were carefully tended by the Oblate Fatherssome ofwhom were later to succumb to the plague. What the unfortunate immigrantswere called upon to endure was tantamount to a death-in-life situationand it is by an outline of the social and economic conditions into whichthey were thrust that the grim but glorious work of the early Oblate Fathersis enshrined.

The area where the Irishimmigrants were forced to settle in the docklands of Liverpool consistedof a labyrinth of streetssome of which were miserably narrow and constricted.There was a pile-up of dingy tenementsjoined together in “courts”where the air was trappedunventilated and polluted by open sewers andpiles of rubbish. That the “courts” were death-traps may beseen from a vivid deion given by a contemporary observer:

“On reaching FontenoyStreetwe entered two courts. There were eleven houses in the most tatteredconditionwith inhabitants in most cases quite in keeping. The houseson the right are the most miserable hovels. They consist of one room anda sort of atticdark and damp. The water tap is placed near the doorof the living room. A poor woman who said she paid a few shillings a weekfor her wretched home complained sadly of the damp rising half way upthe walls.” (2)

Those who had hovels likethis were possibly better off than those forced to make do with a troglodyteexistence in the cellarssome 3000 of which had been closed under theHealth Act of 1842. A Medical Report (1847) stressed that the mortalityrate had risen to 2000 percent above the average of previous years. (3)

TheMass-centre

Bishops and priests throughoutthe industrial heartlands of Northern England strove with might and mainto come to their spiritual aid. In the dense area of Liverpool which theOblates were soon to inherita temporary Mass-centre was set up towardsthe end of 1848 and Fr. Newsham of St. Anthonys arranged to say Mass forthis teeming population of Irish Catholics.

 

The Mass-centre was givento the Oblates and the mission of Holy Cross was assigned to them. Whennegotiations between Fr. [Casimir] Aubert and Bishop Brown were completedthe Oblates took up formal possession of their mission on 18 January1850. Fr. Noble was appointed Superior and he and his community set upquarters in the slum area of Queen Anne Street. No better choice of Superiorof this mission could have been madefor what confronted him would havebroken the heart of any less courageous man. The property provided bya generous Catholic was situated at the junction of Standish Street andGreat Crosshall Street and consisted of a three-storied building; theground floor was a rag and bone storethe first floor was used as a schooland the upper storey served as a chapel. Some adjoining houses had structuralmodifications made in them so as to enlarge the space provided for Mass.Frs. Newsham and Nugent assisted at the opening ceremony. The latter priestproved an invaluable friend to the Oblates and backed them up in everyventure.

Spiritual renewal – preaching a mission

No sooner had the OblateFathers found their bearings then they started a mission in mid-Februarywhich lasted until Easter. Every inducement to attend was extended tothe teeming population and the response was heart-warming. It was a rootand branch experiment in every way. People who had been away from theSacraments for over twenty years were happy to renew the practice of religion.A course of instruction was given and the Fathers made themselves availablefor advice in the confessional for upwards of eighteen hours a day. Whenthe Baptismal vows were renewed at the conclusion of the mission it wasreckoned that many thousands of Communions were distributed. Catholicswere reconciled and about thirty converts were received into the Church.Bishop de Mazenod visited the mission in June 1850 and what he witnessedof the ardent faith and devotion of this poor Irish settlement touchedhis heart immeasurably.

Buildingschools

This mission of 11000 soulsincreased with every immigrant ship. The overcrowding and squalor grewin proportion. Dirtdisease and drink added to the burdens these unfortunatepeople had to bear. The Fathers attacked these problems with a will. Itwas evident to Fr. Noble that Catholic schools were of prime importance.A permanent church buildingand a proper presbytery for the communitywould have to give precedence to the schools. Later Cardinal Manning wasto approve of their choice. “In doing this the Oblates had actedwith their traditional good sense”.(4)There was no hopeof receiving any assistance for the makeshift school room under the chapel.This was made clear in the report of the Privy Council and by the CatholicPoor Schools Committee. New schools had a promise of £750 from theGovernment and £200 from the Poor Schools Committee. These grantsthough generouswere far from being sufficient and Fr. Noble found itnecessary to levy a tax for the new schools on his needy people.

A Protestant Ragged schoolhad been opened nearby and some Catholic children had been lured by thepromise of food and clothing to enroll. A few succumbed but to resistany further temptationFr. Noble organised a protest meeting in frontof this school in Hodson Street.

Frs. Noble and Egan andsupporters forced their way into the school and bore away the guilelessvictims of the proselytizers. A weekly collection of one penny from thosewho could afford it yielded the sum of £30 in a year and on 31 May1852 the foundation stone of the Fontenoy Street school was laid. On 14November1853through massive fund-gathering inside and outside thelocalitythe schools were opened and the children were formally welcomedwithin their classrooms.

TheCatholic Doctrine Society

With the help of the indefatigableFr. NugentFr. Noble helped to organise what came to be known as theCatholic Doctrine Society. Fr. Noble was disturbed also at the prevalenceof drunkenness amongst his flock. He knew their misery and wretchednesswere the prime causes of this weakness and he acquired premises in BisphamStreet to serve as a meeting place for the men of the mission. Talks weregiven on the evils of drink and with the help of Fr. Nugent a fine Temperancesociety grew up in the Holy Cross mission. It was quite evident toothatgoodwill was not lacking in other spheresall that was needed to augmentthe fine dispositions shown by the community was an extended course ofChristian doctrine. The vast congregation of the missionwho had beendeprived so long and so cruelly of the consolations of the Faithwerebadly in need of instruction in its fundamental tenets. All they neededwas initiative and guidance and Fr. Noblewho had already proved himselfan adept at crowd controlstarted in his mission what must have provedan early example of the Catholic Evidence Guild. He arranged with oneof his community to mount a pulpit in the chapel and he would mount anotherand together they bandied forth objection and counter-objection to religiousteachings. It was a practice much resorted to in Jesuit churches and bymeans of it peopleas it werewitnessed the spectacle of one priestarticulating their difficulties against the Faith and the other gentlyanswering their queries.

ACatholic newspaper

Another vehicle of instructionthat was badly needed was a good Catholic newspaper that would counteractthe vicious propaganda emanating from the secular press and Orange pamphlets.Vicious lies and a flood of bigoted misrepresentation of Catholic doctrinewere at times too much for the poorly instructed people. It was a timewhenwith the restoration of the Hierarchyanti-Catholic prejudice wasaired even in quality newspapers. A small pamphlet called the “CatholicVindicator” had been in existence for some time which helped to putforward the Catholic point of view. Ithoweverfailed through lack oflocal news and views. Fr. Noble assembled all the leading Catholics ofLiverpool at a meeting held in July 1851. Mr. Rossoria leading Catholicproposed the publication of a newspaper to follow the example of the “Vindicator”.A committee representing all political interests was formed and it wasdecided to publish a weekly newspaper called the ‘Catholic Citizen”under the editorship of Mr. McConverylate of the “Belfast Vindicator”.The noted teacher and preacherDr. Cahill of Maynoothcame over to launchthe project in which he had a lively interest. The paper conducted a commentaryon the topics of the day that were of peculiar interest to the peopleof the Holy Cross mission and did much to interest and enlighten a growingeducated community.

Overcomingopposition – developing self-esteem

The mission grew and prosperedunder the care of Frs. JolivetNobleEganBradshaw and Dutertre andthe vast numbers of grossly underprivileged people were beginning to acquirean identity and a consciousness of their Catholic commitment. Immoralitywas gradually being replaced by a growing sense of self-esteem. The socialcentre in Bispham Street played an important part in this transformation.It was a building that was deliberately kept bright and airy and cleanso different from the damp cellars in which the people subsisted. Theybegan to have a common purposeto learn how to live and if possible toimprove their condition. Above all they learned mutual support in theirventurespride in their achievements and solidarity against hostile influencesfrom without. The Protestant community living nearby belonged to the workingclasses and in some cases were only a little more prosperous than theirCatholic neighbours. It wasthey felta threat to their self-esteemand security to have this host of starving Catholics so suddenly thrustinto their midst.

The Orange authoritieswho had control of all local housing and policewere able to exploitthe situation to their own advantage. Early in 1852 a course of sermonswas being delivered by Rev. Dr Cahill. One Monday evening in Februarythe chapel was packed by people interested in hearing the discussion.The gallery was crowded more so than usual and the press of people causeda partial collapse of the structure. Panic arose in the three storey buildingand a concerted exit took place on to the streets. Quickly a confrontationtook place between the rival factions. Police were called to restore orderbut the police used the occasion to wield their truncheons on the Catholiccongregation. An ugly situation might have developed but for the promptand cool-headed decision of Fr. Noble. He forbade the Catholics to retaliateand promised them that an investigation would be held. The outcome ofthe investigation resulted in the dismissal of the Chief Constable andseveral other members of the police force and the case proved to be oneof considerable importance. Fr. Noble acted wisely in bringing this caseto courtas a result of which the reputation of the Catholic church wasconsiderably enhanced and the people saw the wisdom of following the leadershipafforded by the clergy of Holy Cross.

Findingneeded funds to educate young and old

Fr. Noble was rewarded bythe trust that was reposed in him. An anonymous donorwho gave him acheque of £100said “This is for your schools. When you startto build your church come to me again. I will give you as much again andmore”. Considerable expenditure was incurred in conducting the schoolwhich sorely taxed the meagre resources of the mission. Street collectionswere conducted by the Fathers. A Grand Bazaar was held in the town hallwhich brought in about £4000. An annual Government grant of £400helped to pay the teachers’ salaries. Besides day classes for childrenthere were night classes for young apprentices who wished to better theircondition. The school won good reports from Government inspectorsthenight classes were well attended. A brief note of commendation in the1860 Report reads: “the boys night school continues under the samezealous teachers to be attended by a large and interested crowd of streetSellers who owe to this night school all that they possess of educationand civilisationI consider it an institution of particular value tosociety”.(5)

Fr. Noble came once moreinto the limelight when he organised a protest meeting in front of theSessions House to defeat a Tory motion in Parliament that was hostileto Catholic interests. In 1856 Fr. Noble was transferred to Galashielsand Fr. Charles Jolivet succeeded him as superior. Fr. John Noble wasonly twenty seven years of age when he first came to Liverpool. Born inDublin 1823he received his education in Castleknock Collegewinninggolden opinions from Fr. Duffthe rector. He was a renowned preacherand conducted missions all over the British Isles. He was a dedicatedand devoted priest and religious. During his stay in Liverpool he putthe mission of Holy Cross on a firm and enduring foundation.

Buildinga church

Fr. Jolivet secured a sitefor the new church at a cost of £5000. The old three storied buildingin Standish Street was no longer safe and Mass was said in the FontenoyStreet Schools. But so great was the number coming to the makeshift chapelthere that a larger place of worship was deemed most necessary.

On 13 June1859the foundationstone for the new church was laid and plans were drawn up by Edward Welby-Pugin.The church was opened on 14 November1860 by Bishop Goss. Dr. Roskelia native of Liverpool and now Bishop of Nottingham preached at the openingMass in the morning and Dr. Marshall preached at the evening service.The community residence was completed at about the same time and everafter its doors were open and its hospitality extended to allespeciallyto Irish people and politicians. With the opening of this beautiful churchand the presence of a devoted community close bya resurgence of religiousconviction and practice was noticeable. There was a vast increase in thenumbers of confessions held during the Lent-long mission preached by Frs.GobertKirbyFox and Arnoux in 1861 .Five hundred people were confirmedduring the course of the year.

Typhus epidemic

In 1862 the dread typhusepidemic took its toll on the lives of the people of dockland and especiallythe Holy Cross mission where many hundreds died. Fr. John Dutertre wasstricken down by the disease and died on 5 February. A French priesthis ministry was confined mainly to the poverty-stricken mission of Liverpoolwhere he was idolised by the devoted people. During the ten days whenhis life was suspended between life and deathprayers were offered incessantlyfor his recovery. Three thousand people attended his funeral obsequiesAnother victim of the typhus plague was Fr. Robert Power a young Oblatewho contracted the fever and died on 6 August1863. In the years thatfollowed recurrent bouts of this dread disease permeated the docklandarea and the miserable courts proved inescapable death traps. The LiverpoolMercury of October 26th1865 called attention to the widespread indifferenceof the municipal authorities to the public health of the people and thedangers they underwent during these intermittent epidemics. The City EngineersReport described what we refer to as the “court” in detail.The typical Liverpool court is:

“A strip of land witha frontage of thirty feet to a narrow streetby sixty feet in depth abuttingat the far end from the high walls of warehouses or manufactories frontingand opening onto the streettwo or three storey houses were built. Underthe floor of the rooms of the front house is a tunnel or passagethreefeet wide and five to six feet highto give access to the land in therear. On this strip of landonly thirty feet wideare placed two rowsof three storey housesfacing each other with their backs against otherhouses each with a frontage of eleven feet and the same in depth includingthe walls; the court was provided with two public lavatories at eitherend of the court and in full view of the residentswater was suppliedto them by means of a single tap.” (6)

The Bishop recommended that the Jesuitsand the Oblates would alternate in taking care of the hospitals.

Meetinggrowing needs

In 1867Fr. Jolivet was appointedVicar Apostolic of Natal and Fr. Hilary Lenoir was appointed superiorin his place. By purchasing a number of houses in the vicinityFr. Lenoirwas able to complete the building of the churchproviding it with a sanctuaryand a sacristy. The Education Act of 1870 made a radical change in thelives of all in the United Kingdom. To Catholics particularly it provedto be of inestimable benefitthough it provided the managers of the schoolswith many difficulties. Most of their schools were not yet ready to providethe classrooms necessary nor fully qualified teachers to occupy them.In 1861 it was noted that twenty three thousand young Liverpool Catholicswere devoid of education. (7) The Central Authorities alloweda breathing space to enable them to adequately fulfil the requirementsmade by the Act. A general fund for the provision of money for Catholiceducation under the patronage of the Duke of Norfolk resulted in the collectionof forty six thousand pounds. Holy Cross was in a difficult position asthe Fontenoy school was incapable of accommodating the increasing numberof pupils which the Act made possible. It was not until 1882 that Fr.Lawrence Roche was able to solve the problem and provide sufficient schoolspace by coming to a happy and ingenious compromise with James Mellora wine and spirit merchant of Hunter Street whereby his premises wererented annually and refurbished to accommodate the growing needs of theHoly Cross mission.

The Founder’s First Visit to the British Province1850

Bishop de Mazonod had fora long time thought of visiting the British Province to see for himselfall that had been accomplished by his sons. Father Aubert had also addedhis entreaties that he should visit those Oblates whom he had alreadyknown and to become acquainted with those whom he had never met. He setsail from Ostend on 17 June1850 and landed at Dover next morning wherehe celebrated Mass. He continued his journey by sea towards London.(8)Hesaid Mass at the London Oratory where he met Father Dalgairns who treatedhim with warm friendliness and introduced him to the Duke of Norfolk andJohn Henry Newman. The Premier Lord of the Realm was a Catholic and hetook it upon himself to conduct Bishop de Mazenod on a tour of the Westend of London finishing up in the Houses of Parliament. Bishop de Mazenodwas impressed with what he saw and with the charm and friendliness ofthe Duke and his family. But it was the other London that Bishop de Mazenodwanted to see and thither he went in the company of Father Casimir Aubert.They travelled from Oxford Street to Aldgate and Whitechapel.

Alighting there they traversedthe whole area bordering on the Thames through narrow lanes teeming withdiseased and starving humanity. What they saw wrung tears of pity fromboth of them and they considered that these abandoned creaturespoorthough they were in the things of the worldwere poorer in the thingsof the spirit. Abashed at the sight of these unfortunate beingsdeprivedof the consolation of religionthe Bishop thought that here was a placedestined by Providence to be a fitting mission-centre for his Oblates.The time for thishoweverwas not to be until after the good Bishop’sdeath when the poor Chapel of Virginia Streetpulled down in 1852 tomake way for an extension of the dockyardswould be replaced even laterby the beautiful church dedicated to the English martyrs.

Bishop de Mazenod was ina hurry to travel further North to Birmingham. He made his headquartersat Maryvale where he was impressed by what he saw in the way of regularityand religious observance. He had hoped to see Bishop Wiseman but failedto do so. He met Bishop Ullathorne and in his company he was present atthe distribution of prizes at the Oscott Seminary. He was able to visithis friendLord Shrewsbury and saw for himself the magnificent retreathouse of St. Wilfrid’swhichthough occupied by the Oratorianshad been offered to the Oblates. He went from Maryvale to Birmingham tovisit the community there. He declined an invitation to stay with LordHerries at his home in Everingham preferring instead to stay at the LittlePriory“truly a gem where I am very comfortable”.

He visited Manchester on4 Julyto see Father Daly and his confreres in the busy parish wherethey were workingblessing and laying the foundation stone of the churchthey hoped to build. Later he went to Liverpool and visited the humbleshed that was the forerunner of what was to be a Puginesque triumph. Thiswas to prove the highlight of his first visit to the British Provinceand he described his visit there as “a kind of marvel”. He waswith the poorest of the poorthe Irish famine-victims who had soughta tenuous relief from a still worse fate in hunger-ridden Ireland. Bishopde Mazenod was overwhelmed when he saw with total realism the wondershis Oblates were performing in this miserable centre where they broughtthe consolation of religion to a people sunk in degradation in the slumsof the Liverpool dockyards:

“The crowd which filledthe chapelthat miserable shed which serves as a chapel and which fillsup six times on Sunday and the gatherings waited for me to pass by andthey threw themselves on me to kiss my handsmy vestment and even myfeet.” (9)

This was the first timehe had encountered the tremendous sensibilities of the Irish faith whichmade such an impact on him. The visit to Liverpool was an unforgettableexperience for the Founder. It was in the slums of Liverpool that Bishopde Mazenod saw the fulfilment of the Oblate role which was to preach theGospel to the poor. It was here that the Providence decreed that the Oblatesshould undertake the care of the poverty-stricken Irish immigrants andhere it appeared to them that their prime objective in coming to Englandwas put in abeyance. Howeverit is generally admitted that the Catholicrevival in England owes more to the Irish invasion than to any other setof factors.

It has often been thoughtthat if the Oblates had retained their chaplaincies with the rich andpowerful more might have been done towards the spread of the Faith inrural England. After Liverpool he visited Aldenham where he confirmedtwenty six peoplelater visiting Maryvale again on the 21st for sevenordinations. Later he visited Penzance where he baptised and confirmedmany converts. A month after he arrived in England he left for Francewell satisfied with what he had seen.

He had mixed with the richand the poor of the realm and although he was much more at home with thepoor by inclinationhe was fitted by temperament and circumstances tomove easily in aristocratic circles. He had met many of these people duringtheir vacation on the French Riviera and was accepted by them as one oftheir own. Coming to England he was received by them with every mark ofrespect and they vied with one another to play host to him. His grandmannernoble bearingnatural distinction won their esteem. He carriedon a lengthy correspondence with the English aristocrats in which theygave signal proofs of their sincere esteem and affection for him. He forhis part knew that he could count on their support for the members ofhis Congregation in England yet he never asked their aid or presumed tosolicit their help. His Congregation was instituted to preach the Gospelto the poor and the poor were to be found in the cities. Hence by thissimple logic the Founder fostered by word and example the urban natureof the Oblate vocation. His aristocratic friends in England came to helpthese missionsespecially that of Tower Hill and some were destined tocome and live in the drab surroundings of the East end slums.

In a letter which he addressedto the members of the Provincehe congratulated them on the work theywere doing and on the spirit of regularity and self dedication which heexperienced everywherehe encouraged them to perform their work in accordancewith the spirit of the Holy Rule and he says:

“Too much reason haveI to bless God for this wonderful increase. I have not ceased to do sofrom the first time I put my foot on English groundabove all duringthe holy sacrifice of the Mass. Nowe shall never be able to thank theLord sufficiently for all that He has deigned to work for our Congregationin England.

“It is then of thegreatest importance to correspond to all these graces with great fidelity;for it must not be dissembled that the kind of ministry you exercisethe peculiarity of your positionscattered as you are over the immenseextent of this kingdomthe small number of labourers which you countthe kind of life led by those whom you are obliged to frequentwith whomyou have obligatory intercoursethe habits of the ecclesiasticswhosefriendship you must cultivateare so many dangers for you of swervingfrom the Holy Ruleswhich it is your duty to follow and practiceinvirtue of your religious professionwhich separates you from the worldand which ought to distinguish you from all other ecclesiastics.

“Thusif you wishnot to lose the fruit and merit of your labourslive always conformablyto your Holy Rules the spirit of which you ought to meditate on more andmore in order to conform to it at all timesin all placesin all circumstances.”(10)

Notes

  1. Circular Letters of Bp. De Mazenod toMarseilles DioceseFebruary 24 and June121847. Oblate WritingsVol. 3Letters and Documents Concerning England and Ireland 1842-1860pp. 174-185.
  2. H. Shimmens in Courts and Alleys inLiverpoolcited by D. Murray in the Centenary Commemoration ofHoly Cross 1949p. 3.
  3. Medical Report 1847cited by Murrayop. cit.p. 5.
  4. Cardinal Manning addressing a meetingin Fontenoy Street SchoolLiverpoolAugust 271894cited by Murrayop. cit.p. 26.
  5. Cited by D. Murrayop. cit.p. 24.
  6. City engineer’s Report for 1864cited by Murrayop. cit.p. 32.
  7. Fr. J. Nugentcited by Murrayop. cit.p. 33.
  8. Achille ReyVol. IIp. 341.
  9. Bp. De Mazenod to Fr. Tempier10 July1850. Oblate WritingsVol. 3No. 42.
  10. Idem. Act of Visitation22 July1850. Oblate WritingsVol. 3pp. 188-189.

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